Saturday, 17 March 2018

List of Indian freedom fighters who perished in struggle against British colonialism between 1883-1943

List of Indian freedom fighters who perished in struggle against British colonialism between 1883-1943 ( Red ink marked are Bengali Hindus )

T630-03481385his information is from a pamphlet by the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army, which was distributed throughout India in 1943. The purpose of re-publishing it here is that it the original site where it was published appears to have gone down, and I think it is worthwhile for this list to still exist on the web.
All of the individuals listed here were active participants in the freedom movement. They were either executed or perished in jail. May their memories and love of Mother India live on.
** Numerous persons died in Jails in connection with Quit India movement whose names are not available.
1. Vasudev Balvant Phadke, Dist. Kolaba, Maharastra, Born Nov. 4, 1845. He tried toorganise a National revolt against theBritish: Deported to Aden and kept in Aden Jail under inhuman condition. He resorted to hunger strike as a protest against ill treatment of the Jail Authority and died on Feb. 17, 1883.
2-4. Senapati Tikendrajit Singh, Manipur. General Thengal, Manipur, Agnes Sena (Younger brother of General Thengal), Manipur. They revolted against British and were executed on August 13, 1891.
5. Damodar Hari Chapekar, Maharastra. Executed in Yerrowda Central Jail or, April 18, 1898 on a charge of killing Rand, Plague Co mmissioner and another army officer named Ayerest.
6-7. Basudeo Hari Chapekar, S/o Hari Chapekar, Maharastra and Mahadeo Ranade, S/o. Vinayak Ranade, Maharastra were executed in Yerrowda Central Jail on May 8, 1899 and May 10, 1899 respectively for murder of informer Dravids.
8. Balkrishna Chapekar. S/o HariChapekar. Maharastra. Executed in Yerrowda Central Jail on May 12, 1899. He helped in the plan to kill Mr. Rand, Plague Commissioner, Poona.
9. Khudiram Bose, S/o Trailokyanath, Midnapore (Born Dec. 3. 1889) was executed in Muzaffarpur Jail (Bihar) on August 11, 1908 for committing murder on Miss and Mrs. Kennedy mistaking that the carriage in which they were travelling was carriage of Session Judge Kingsford.
10. Kanailal Datt, S/o Chunilal. Chandannagar, Dist. Hooghly, West Bengal Executed in Old Alipore Jail Harinbari-present Presidency Jail) on Nov. 10, 1908 for shooting dead approver Narendra Goswami inside jail.
11. Satyendranath Bose. S/o Abheycharsn Midnapore, West Bengal. Exeouted in Old Alipore Jail (Harinbari–present Presidency Jail) an Nov. 21, 1908 for shooting dead approver Narendra Goswami inside jail.
12. Charu Charan Bose. S/o Keshablal, Khulna (now in Bangladesh) Executed on March 19, 1909 in Old Alipore Jail (Harinbari–present Presidency Jail) for shooting dead Ashu Biswas, Public Prosecutor of Alipore Bomb case inside Jorabagan Court premises.
13. Madanlal Dhingra. Punjab. He shot and killed William Curzon Wyllie, Political A.D.C. to the Secretary of State. He was executed on August 17, 1909 in Pentonville, London.
14. Birendranath Datta Gupta, S/o Umacharan, Dacca (now in Bangladesh). He shot dead D.S.P. Shamsul Alam in Calcutta High Court premises. Alam was the prime investigator in Alipore Conspiracy case..He was executed on Feb. 21, 1910 in Old Alipore Jail (Present Presidency Jail).
15-17. Aranta Laxman KanhereKrishna Gopal Kanre and Vinayak Narayan Deshpande. They were executed in Thane Jail (suburb of Bombay) on April 19,1910 for killing D.M. Jackson who convicted Ganesh Damodar Savarkar to transportation in Nasik Conspiracy case.
18 Kashiram, Executed in Ferozpore Jail, Punjab, on March 27, 1915 in connection with preparation for All India armed uprising.
19-22. Amirchand. S/o Hukumchand; Balmokand, S/o Bhai Mathuradas, Punjab: Abad Behari (Oudh) ; Basanta Biswas, S/o Motilal, Nadia, West Bengal. All the four were sentenced to death in Delhi Conspiracy case in which the principal accused Rashbehari Bose could not be arrested in spite of a reward being declared for his arrest. They were executed on May 11, 1915 in the Ambala Jail.
23-29. Bakshis SinghBishnu Ganesh PingleySurain Singh, S/o Ishar Singh; Surain Singh, S/o Burah Singh ; Harnam Singh of Sialkot ;Jaggat Singh and Kartar Singh, Saraba. These seven persons along with 17 others were sentenced to death in the 1st Lahore Conspiracy case set up after the failure of projected Ah India Armed Uprising for seizure of power on Feb. 21, 1915 under the leadership of Rashbehari Bose. They marched to gallows valiantly refusing to make any mercy petition to Govt. They were executed on Nov. 17, 1915 in Lahore Central Jail.
30-31. Niren Das Gupta. S/o Lalit Mohan, Faridpur (now in Bangladesh) and Monoranjan Sen Gupta. Faridpur (now in Bangladesh). These two were participants in the well known Balasore fight on Sept. 9, 1915 along with the illustrious revolutionary leader Jatindranath Mukherjee and on being arrested were prosecuted for murder of one Rajmahanty whom they had to kill in the morning of the same day in self-defence and were sentenced to death. They were executed on Nov. 22, 1915 in the Balasore Jail (Orissa).
32. Bhan Singh. A convict of Lahore Conspiracy case who was most brutally assaulted for alleged misbehaviour with the Superintendent of Andaman Cellular Jail. He died during hunger strike.
33. Sohanlal Pathak, Amritsar. He was tried and sentenced to death for his activity in connection with preparation for a soldiers’ uprising in Burma during the Ist World War. He was executed in January, 1916 in Mandalay Jail (Burma).
34-38. Her Singh Bahoowal. Hoshiarpur; Ishar Singh alias Suran Singh, Ferozepore; Ranga Singh alias Rods Singh. Jullundur; Rur Singh of Talwandi, Ferozepore and Uttam Singh, Ludhiana. They were sentenced to death in one of the supplementary Lahore Conspiracy cases following the failure of the projected countrywide armed uprising on Feb. 21, 1915. They were executed in Lahore Central Jail on June 12, 1916.

39-45. Harnam Singh
; Challiaram; Narain SinghBasswa SinghNarinjan SinghBhai Balbant Singh. They were executed in Burma, between August 19 & 22, 1916 in connection with Burma Conspiracy case.
46. Sushil Lahiry, Executed in Oct., 1918 in Beneras Jail CU.P.) for killing his intimate friend Binayak Rao Kapie whom the party had given death penalty for rank defection and misappropriation of money and arms.
47. Ram Rakha, Died during hunger strike in l919 in Andaman Cellular Jail.
48-66. Abdulla alias Sukhai; BhagwanBisramDudhaiAlicharanLal Mohammad; LaltuMahadeoMeghuNazir AliRaghubirRamlaganRamrupRudaliSahadeo;Sampat ISampat IIShyam SundarSitaram. They were arrested in connection with famous Chauri Chaura case during Non-co-operation movement led by Gandhiji and were executed in 1923.
67. Gopi Mohan Saha (Gopinath). S/o Bijoykrishna, Serampur,-Dist. Hooghly, West Bengal. Executed on March I, 1924 in Old Alipore present Presidency) Jail for shooting dead an Englishman Mr. Day mistaking him as Police Commissioner Tegart.
68-69. Ananta Hari Mitra, S/o. Ramlal (Born 1906) and Promode Ranjan Chowdhury, S/o Ishan (Born 1904). They were sentenced to death for killing D.I.B. officer Bhupen Chatterjee inside the jail where they were being then detained as under trial prisoners in akhbareswar Bomb case. Executed on Sept. 28, 1926 in Alipore Central Jail (New Central Jail).
70. Rajen Lahiri, S/o, Kshitish Mohan, Pabna (now in Bangladesh) Born June 1901. Executed on Dec. 17, 1927 in Gonda Jail (U.P.) in connection with Kakori Conspiracy case.
71. Asfsqullah Khan. Shahjahanpur ( U.P.). Executed in Faizabad Jail (U.P.) on December 19, 1927 in connection with Kakori Conspiracy case.
72. Ramprosad Bismil. S/o. Muralidhar Tewari, Shahjahanpur (U.P.). Born 1898. Executed on December 19, 1927 in Gorakhpur Jail (LT.P.) in connection with Kakori Conspiracy case.
73. Thakur Roshan Singh. S/o. Jagadish Singh, Shahjahanpur (U.P.). Born 1897. Executed in Naini Central Jail (U.P.) in connection with Kakori Conspiracy case on Dec. 21, 1927.
74. Jatindranath Das. S/o. Bankim Behari, Calcutta, West Bengal, Born Oct. 27, 1904. He along with ten others joined a hunger strike started by Bhagat Singh and Batukeswar Datta earlier upon a demand for recognition of better status for all political prisoners. He died inch by inch after 63 days of fasting on Sept. 13, 1929 in Lahore Brostal Jail.
75. Hpoongyi-U-Wizaya, Kyaungone, Bassein, Burma. He was a monk and resorted to hunger strike upon a demand for better diet for political prisoners and certain other privileges consistent with the life of a monk. Expired on September, 20, 1929 after fasting for 163 days.
76. Bhagat Singh. S/o Kishan Singh and nephew of renowned revolutionary Sardar Ajit Singh. Lgallpur (now in Pakistan). Born Oct. 6, 1907. He was first arrested for the well-known Central Assembly Bomb throwing affair and while in prison was made an accused in the Second Lahore Conspiracy case along with many others woven round the murder of Saunders, A.S.P., Lahore. He was executed on March 23, 1931 in Lahore Central Jail.
77-78. Sibram Rajguru, S/o Hari Narayan Rajguru, Poona, Maharastra, and Sukdeb, S/o Lala Ram Lal Thapar. Lyallpur (now in Pakistan). Born May 15, 1907. They were executed on March 23, 1931 in Lahore Central Jail in connection with Lahore Conspiracy Case.
79. Hari Kishan Talwar. S/o Lala Gurudasmal, Punjab. Born January, 1908. He made an attempt on the life of Geoffery-deMontmorrency. Governor of Punjab when the latter was coming out of the Lahore University Hall after delivering the convocation address with a revolver shot injuring the Governor and killing a Police Officer Channan Singh. He was executed on June 9, 1931 in Mianwali Jail (now in Pakistan).
80-82. Ranabir SinghDurga DasChamanlal. They were arrested in connection with Martyr Hari Kishan Talwar’s case and after a supplementary trial_were sentenced to death.
83. Dinesh Gupta. S/o Satish, Dacca (now in Bangladesh). Born Dec. 6, 1911. He was a participant along with Benoy and Badal in the historic Calcutta Writers Buildings raid (Dec. 8, 1930) when Col. Simpson, I.G. of Prisons, Bengal, was shot dead and Mr. Nelson, Judicial Secretary and some others were injured. He was executed in Alipore Central Jail (New Central Jail) on July 7, 1931.
84. Ram Krishna Biswas. S/o Durgakripa, Chittagong (now in Bangladesh). Born January 16, 1910. He shot dead Inspector Tarini Mukherjee at Chandpur, Comilla (now in Bangladesh) mistaking him as Craig, I.G. of Police. Executed on August 4, 1931 in Alipore Central Jail (New Central Jail).
85-91. NGA PothunNGA BogaukNGA Than MyaingNGA Po ThitNGA Po SaungNGA BaThaw and NGA Po Hta.These seven martyrs were tried by special tribunal (this trial is known as famous THARAWADDY trial) on a charge of organising revolt against the British Govt. They were condemned to death on August 8, 1931.
92-93. Tarakeswar Sengupta. S/o Haricharan, Barisal (now in Bangladesh). (Born April 15, 1905) and Santosh Mitra, Calcutta, West Bengal. They were killed in Hijli Detention Camp (Midnapore, West Bengal) on Sept. 16, 1931 in course of an attack on the detenus by Jamuna Singh, Head Warder and his subordinates.
94. Saya San. A hero of hundred battles rebelled against the British. He was executed in Burma on Nov. 18, 1931.
95. Manoranjan Bhattacharjee. S/o Kali Prasanna, was executed on August 22, 1932 in Barisal Jail (now in Bangladesh) in connection with Charanuguria (Faridpur–now in Bangladesh) Post Office dacoity case.
96. Ramdeni Singh. Bihar, was hanged in 1932 in connection with Hajipur Station dacoity case.

97. Pradyot Bhattacharjee
. S/o Bhabataran, Midnapore, West Bengal, was executed in Midnapore Central Jail on Jan. 12, 1933 in connection with Douglas (district Magistrate, Midnapore) murder case.
98. Kalipada Mukherjee was executed on Feb. 16, I933 in DaccaJail (now in Bangladesh) in connection with Kamakhya Sen, Special Magistrate murder case.
99. Mahabir Singh. S/o Kunwar Devi Singh, Etah District, CU.P.). Born Sept. 16, 1904 and died on May 17, 1933 in Andaman Cellular Jail in course of a hunger strike while resisting forced feeding.
100. Man Krishna Namadas (NZohan Kishore)· Mymensingh (now in Bangladesh), who resorted to hunger strike in Andaman Cellular Jail as a protest against inhuman treatment on political prisoners died on May 26, 1933 while resisting forced feeding.
101. Mohit Maitra. S/o Hem Chandra Maitra, Calcutta, West Bengal, Died on May 28, 1933 in Andaman Cellular Jail in course of hunger strike while resisting forced feeding.
102. Surya Sen (Mastetda). S/o Raj Mani Sen. Born March 22, 1894, Chittagong (now in Bangladesh), was executed in Chittagong Jail on Jan. 12, 1934 for armed uprising against the British in Chittagong; He was the Supreme Commander of the uprising.
103. Tarakeswar Dastidar. S/0. Chandra Mohan, Chittagong (now in Bangladesh) He was an active associate of Masterda Surya Sen during absconding period and was executed in Chittagong Jail., January 12, 1934 for armed revolt against the British in Chittagong.
104-105. Harendranath Chakraborty. S/o Kali Kumar, Chittagong (now in Bangladesh) and Krishna Chowdhury, S/o Hemendralal, Chittagong attempted to kill Europeans In Chittagong Paltan Maidan. They were executed on June 5, 1934 in Midnapore Central Jail.
106. Dinesh Majumdar, S/o Purna Chandra, Basirhat, 24-Parganas, West Bengal (Born May, 1907), shot dead Polios Commissioner Quinn of Chandannagore (French). Attempted on the life of Tegart, police Commissioner, Calcutta on 25.8.30 and being arrested for the latter event escaped from the Midnapore Central Jail and went under ground He was recaptured at Cornawallis Street, Galcutta, after a fight with the Police Party. He was executed on June 9, 1934 in Alipore Central Jail (New Central Jail).
107. Baikuntha Sukul (Sukla). S/o Ram Behari Sukul, Mazaffarpur, Bihar, was executed o, May 14, L934 in Gaya Jail (Bihar) for killing Phani Ghosh who betrayed the revolutionary party and turned approver in the Second Lahore Conspiracy case.
108. Manindranath Banerjee, S/o Dr. Taracharan Banerjee: Beneras (Born in 1911) died in Fatehgarh Jail CU.P.) on June 20, 1934 after 66 days’ Hunger Strike in protest against brutal treatment inside Jail. He was arrested for shooting Jiten Baneljee, S.P., who was in charge of investigation of Kakori Conspiracy case though the victim was his own maternal uncle.

109. Ashit Bhattacharjee.
 S/o Khirod Mohan, Lashiara, Dist. Comilla (now in Bangladesh) Born April 4, 1915 executed on July 2, 1934 in Sylhet Jail (now in Bangladesh) in connection with Itakhola mail dacoity case.

110-112. Ram Krishna Roy
, S/o Kenaram Ray Roy Midnapur, West Bengal; Brojo Kishore Chakraborty and Nirmal Jiban Ghosh, S/o Jamini Jiban Ghosh, were executed in Midnapore Central Jail in connection with Burge (D· M· Midnapore) murder case. Ram Krishna Roy and Brojo Kishore Chakraborty were executed on Oct. 25, 1934 and NirmalJiban Ghosh on October 26, 1934.
113. Motilal Mallick. S/o Raj Kumar, Dacca (now in Bangladesh). Born 1912. Executed Dec. 15, 1934 in Dacca Jail in connection with Deobhog (Dacca) Shooting case.
114. Bhabani Bhattacherjee. S/o Basanta Kumar, Dacca (now in Bangladesh). Born 1914. Tried in connection with the attack on the life of Sir John Anderson, Governor of Bengal, at Lebong race course, Darjeeling and was sentenced to death. He was executed on February 3, 1935 in Rajshahi Jail (now in Bangladesh).
115. Rohini Barua. Born 1915. Executed in Faridpur Jail (now in Bangladesh) on Dec. 18, 1935 on a charge of beheading a sub-Inspector of Police named Ersad Ali of Gopalganj P.S., Faridpur.
116. Haren Munshi, Died on Jan 30, 1938 in Dacca Jail (now in Bangladesh) while resisting forced-feeding in course of a hunger strike resorted to by repatriated Andaman prisoners convicted in Titagar Conspiracy case.
117. Udham Singh. S/o Sardar Tahel Singh, Sunam, Patiala, Born Dec. 26, 1898. He shot dead Michel O. Dyer, ex-Governor of Punjab as a reprisal for the brutal atrocities led by him in Punjab in 1919. He was executed on June 12, 1940 in Pentonville Jail (London).
118. Sankar Mahali. was executed in Nagpur Central Jail on Jan. 19, 1943 in connection with Quit India movement.
119. Himu Kalani. a valiant fighter of the Quit India movement was executed in Sukkur Jail on Jan. 21, 1943.
120. Rajnarain Missir. the renowned Hero of the Quit India movement was executed in Lucknow Jail (U.P.).
121. Kusal Kanowar. Executed in Jorhat Jail, Assam on June 16, 1943 in connection with Quit India movement.

Saturday, 25 July 2015

Pronunciation in Bengali language

Bengali language has its own beauty of pronunciation basically influenced by Ardh Magadhi / Behari languages as Bhojpuri, Maithil etc. actually these all languages or dialects were originated Pali / Prakrit, hence as written, actually its not pronounce same in Bengali for example - -
written - -  pronounce  
smriti        sriti
sandhya    sonddha
arany        oranno
jaab           jabo
bhajan       bhojon
andhakar   ondhokar many more Sanskrit words in Bengali is written correctly as Hindi or other Indian languages but pronunciation during talking just changes and that influence is existed by Pali / Prakrit, and that beauty makes language more sweet and attractive, if we want to know more about that, then this following link helps a lot,

Vowels and diphthongs

  • Sanskrit ai and au always monophthongize to Pali e and o, respectively
Examples: maitrīmettā, auṣadhaosadha
  • Sanskrit aya and ava likewise often reduce to Pali e and o
Examples: dhārayatidhāreti, avatāraotāra, bhavatihoti
  • Sanskrit avi becomes Pali e (i.e. aviaie)
Example: sthavirathera
  • Sanskrit appears in Pali as a, i or u, often agreeing with the vowel in the following syllable. also sometimes becomes u after labial consonants.
Examples: kṛtakata, tṛṣṇataṇha, smṛtisati, ṛṣiisi, dṛṣṭidiṭṭhi, ṛddhiiddhi, ṛjuuju, spṛṣṭaphuṭṭha, vṛddhavuddha
  • Sanskrit long vowels are shortened before a sequence of two following consonants.
Examples: kṣāntikhanti, rājyarajja, īśvaraissara, tīrṇatiṇṇa, pūrvapubba


Sound changes

  • The Sanskrit sibilants ś, , and s merge as Pali s
Examples: śaraṇasaraṇa, doṣadosa
  • The Sanskrit stops and ḍh become and ḷh between vowels (as in Vedic)
Example: cakravāḍacakkavāḷa, virūḍhavirūḷha


General rules
  • Many assimilations of one consonant to a neighboring consonant occurred in the development of Pali, producing a large number of geminate (double) consonants. Since aspiration of a geminate consonant is only phonetically detectable on the last consonant of a cluster, geminate kh, gh, ch, jh, ṭh, ḍh, th, dh, ph and bh appear as kkh, ggh, cch, jjh, ṭṭh, ḍḍh, tth, ddh, pph and bbh, not as khkh, ghgh etc.
  • When assimilation would produce a geminate consonant (or a sequence of unaspirated stop+aspirated stop) at the beginning of a word, the initial geminate is simplified to a single consonant.
Examples: prāṇapāṇa (not ppāṇa), sthavirathera (not tthera), dhyānajhāna (not jjhāna), jñātiñāti (not ññāti)
  • When assimilation would produce a sequence of three consonants in the middle of a word, geminates are simplified until there are only two consonants in sequence.
Examples: uttrāsauttāsa (not utttāsa), mantramanta (not mantta), indrainda (not indda), vandhyavañjha (not vañjjha)
  • The sequence vv resulting from assimilation changes to bb
Example: sarva → savva → sabba, pravrajati → pavvajati → pabbajati, divya → divva → dibba, nirvāṇa → nivvāṇa → nibbāna
Total assimilation
Total assimilation, where one sound becomes identical to a neighboring sound, is of two types: progressive, where the assimilated sound becomes identical to the following sound; and regressive, where it becomes identical to the preceding sound.
Progressive assimilations
  • Internal visarga assimilates to a following voiceless stop or sibilant
Examples: duḥkṛtadukkata, duḥkhadukkha, duḥprajñaduppañña, niḥkrodha (=niṣkrodha) → nikkodha, niḥpakva (=niṣpakva) → nippakka, niḥśokanissoka, niḥsattvanissatta
  • In a sequence of two dissimilar Sanskrit stops, the first stop assimilates to the second stop
Examples: vimuktivimutti, dugdhaduddha, utpādauppāda, pudgalapuggala, udghoṣaugghosa, adbhutaabbhuta, śabdasadda
  • In a sequence of two dissimilar nasals, the first nasal assimilates to the second nasal
Example: unmattaummatta, pradyumnapajjunna
  • j assimilates to a following ñ (i.e., becomes ññ)
Examples: prajñāpaññā, jñātiñāti
  • The Sanskrit liquid consonants r and l assimilate to a following stop, nasal, sibilant, or v
Examples: mārgamagga, karmakamma, varṣavassa, kalpakappa, sarva → savva → sabba
  • r assimilates to a following l
Examples: durlabhadullabha, nirlopanillopa
  • d sometimes assimilates to a following v, producing vv → bb
Examples: udvigna → uvvigga → ubbigga, dvādaśabārasa (beside dvādasa)
  • t and d may assimilate to a following s or y when a morpheme boundary intervenes
Examples: ut+savaussava, ud+yānauyyāna
Regressive assimilations
  • Nasals sometimes assimilate to a preceding stop (in other cases epenthesis occurs)
Examples: agniaggi, ātmanatta, prāpnotipappoti, śaknotisakkoti
  • m assimilates to an initial sibilant
Examples: smaratisarati, smṛtisati
  • Nasals assimilate to a preceding stop+sibilant cluster, which then develops in the same way as such clusters without following nasals
Examples: tīkṣṇa → tikṣa → tikkha, lakṣmī → lakṣī →lakkhī
  • The Sanskrit liquid consonants r and l assimilate to a preceding stop, nasal, sibilant, or v
Examples: prāṇapāṇa, grāmagāma, śrāvakasāvaka, agraagga, indrainda, pravrajati → pavvajati → pabbajati, aśruassu
  • y assimilates to preceding non-dental/retroflex stops or nasals
Examples: cyavaticavati, jyotiṣjoti, rājyarajja, matsya → macchya → maccha, lapsyate → lacchyate → lacchati, abhyāgataabbhāgata, ākhyātiakkhāti, saṁkhyāsaṅkhā (but also saṅkhyā), ramyaramma
  • y assimilates to preceding non-initial v, producing vv → bb
Example: divya → divva → dibba, veditavya → veditavva → veditabba, bhāvya → bhavva → bhabba
  • y and v assimilate to any preceding sibilant, producing ss
Examples: paśyatipassati, śyenasena, aśvaassa, īśvaraissara, kariṣyatikarissati, tasyatassa, svāminsāmī
  • v sometimes assimilates to a preceding stop
Examples: pakvapakka, catvāricattāri, sattvasatta, dhvajadhaja
Partial and mutual assimilation
  • Sanskrit sibilants before a stop assimilate to that stop, and if that stop is not already aspirated, it becomes aspirated; e.g. śc, st, ṣṭ and sp become cch, tth, ṭṭh and pph
Examples: paścātpacchā, astiatthi, stavathava, śreṣṭhaseṭṭha, aṣṭaaṭṭha, sparśaphassa
  • In sibilant-stop-liquid sequences, the liquid is assimilated to the preceding consonant, and the cluster behaves like sibilant-stop sequences; e.g. str and ṣṭr become tth and ṭṭh
Examples: śāstra → śasta → sattha, rāṣṭra → raṣṭa → raṭṭha
  • t and p become c before s, and the sibilant assimilates to the preceding sound as an aspirate (i.e., the sequences ts and ps become cch)
Examples: vatsavaccha, apsarasaccharā
  • A sibilant assimilates to a preceding k as an aspirate (i.e., the sequence kṣ becomes kkh)
Examples: bhikṣubhikkhu, kṣāntikhanti
  • Any dental or retroflex stop or nasal followed by y converts to the corresponding palatal sound, and the y assimilates to this new consonant, i.e. ty, thy, dy, dhy, ny become cc, cch, jj, jjh, ññ; likewise ṇy becomes ññ. Nasals preceding a stop that becomes palatal share this change.
Examples: tyajati → cyajati → cajati, satya → sacya → sacca, mithyā → michyā → micchā, vidyā → vijyā → vijjā, madhya → majhya → majjha, anya → añya → añña, puṇya → puñya → puñña, vandhya → vañjhya → vañjjha → vañjha
  • The sequence mr becomes mb, via the epenthesis of a stop between the nasal and liquid, followed by assimilation of the liquid to the stop and subsequent simplification of the resulting geminate.
Examples: āmra → ambra → amba, tāmratamba


An epenthetic vowel is sometimes inserted between certain consonant-sequences. As with , the vowel may be a, i, or u, depending on the influence of a neighboring consonant or of the vowel in the following syllable. i is often found near i, y, or palatal consonants; u is found near u, v, or labial consonants.
  • Sequences of stop + nasal are sometimes separated by a or u
Example: ratnaratana, padmapaduma (u influenced by labial m)
  • The sequence sn may become sin initially
Examples: snānasināna, snehasineha
  • i may be inserted between a consonant and l
Examples: kleśakilesa, glānagilāna, mlāyatimilāyati, ślāghatisilāghati
  • An epenthetic vowel may be inserted between an initial sibilant and r
Example: śrīsirī
  • The sequence ry generally becomes riy (i influenced by following y), but is still treated as a two-consonant sequence for the purposes of vowel-shortening
Example: ārya → arya → ariya, sūrya → surya → suriya, vīrya → virya → viriya
  • a or i is inserted between r and h
Example: arhatiarahati, garhāgarahā, barhiṣbarihisa
  • There is sporadic epenthesis between other consonant sequences
Examples: caityacetiya (not cecca), vajravajira (not vajja)

Other changes

  • Any Sanskrit sibilant before a nasal becomes a sequence of nasal followed by h, i.e. ṣṇ, sn and sm become ṇh, nh, and mh
Examples: tṛṣṇataṇha, uṣṇīṣauṇhīsa, asmiamhi
  • The sequence śn becomes ñh, due to assimilation of the n to the preceding palatal sibilant
Example: praśna → praśña → pañha
Examples: jihvājivhā, gṛhyagayha, guhyaguyha
  • h undergoes metathesis with a following nasal
Example: gṛhṇātigaṇhāti
  • y is geminated between e and a vowel
Examples: śreyasseyya, MaitreyaMetteyya
  • Voiced aspirates such as bh and gh on rare occasions become h
Examples: bhavatihoti, -ebhiṣ-ehi, laghulahu
  • Dental and retroflex sounds sporadically change into one another
Examples: jñānañāṇa (not ñāna), dahatiḍahati (beside Pali dahati) nīḍanīla (not nīḷa), sthānaṭhāna (not thāna), duḥkṛtadukkaṭa (beside Pali dukkata)


There are several notable exceptions to the rules above; many of them are common Prakrit words rather than borrowings from Sanskrit.
  • āryaayya (beside ariya)
  • gurugaru (adj.) (beside guru (n.))
  • puruṣapurisa (not purusa)
  • vṛkṣa → rukṣa → rukkha (not vakkha)

Sunday, 2 November 2014

Bengali Language

Bengali Language or Bangla is an Indo-Aryan language spoken mostly in the East Indian subcontinent. It has evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit and Sanskrit languages and is the second most spoken language in India. Currently, the language belt of Bengali ranges from Bangladesh to the Indian state of West Bengal, Assam and Tripura. With about 230 million speakers spread all over the world, the Bangla Language is also one of the most spoken languages in the world.

Bangla Language is also a member of the Indo-European family of languages. It takes its birth from a form of Prakrit or Middle Indo-Aryan to finally emerge from the Apabhramsa-Avahatta in the tenth century. The Bengali script has been derived from the Brahmi alphabet of the Ashokan inscriptions (273 to 232BC). History of Bengali language has been divided into three eras – Old Bengali (950-1350), Middle Bengali (1350-1800) and Modern Bengali (1800 to the present day). Old Bengali is survived only through a collection of forty-eight poems (1050-1200) known as the charva songs. These were composed by the siddhacharyas (enlightened ones) who were mainly Buddhist.

Middle Bengali covers a huge period. The 15th century mostly covered the narrative poetry genre, the theme being mainly of religious content. Among these, Krittivas' Ramayan has been credited to be a classic. Other narrative poems include Srikrishnavijaya by Maladhar Vasu and Srikrishnakirttan by Baru Chandidas. Literary exploits of the 15th century also include Chaitanyamangal or Chaitanya Bhagavat (1540), the biography of Saint Chaitanya, by Brindavan Das. In the 16th century Bengali literature contained narrative epic poems dealing mainly with the stories of popular goddesses like Chandi (Chandimangal by Kavikanan Mukundaram Chakravarti) and Manasa. Towards the end of this century there was a wave of Vaishnavism and this gave way to the new lyrical activity in the form of music combined with poetry.

The 17th century has nothing much to boast of, except for its secular romantic verse tales that were written solely by Muslims. Even the Muslims of Arrakan, who had close intellectual contact with Bengal, were active in literary pursuits in Bengali. Daulat Kazi, the first Bengali Arrakanese poet wrote the romantic verse tale Sati Mayana. Eighteenth century saw Bengali literature take an affinity to secular poetry and the narrative verse. Rameshvar Bhattacharya's Sivasankirttan portrayed Shiva as a poor farmer and Gauri, his wife, as a human heroine. The end of the eighteenth century saw two new forms of poetry come into age, the Kavi and the Panchali.

Nineteenth century was the period when the actual literary renaissance of Bengali took place. Michael Madhusudan Datta (1834-1873) and Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (1838-1898) were the founders of the modern age in Bengali literature. Madhusudan was the first Bengali poet to write in blank verse and combined western influences into the essence Indian literature. His Meghnadvadhkavya (1861) written in blank verse has the same flavour of Milton's Paradise Lost. Madhusudan treated Meghnad, one of the villains of Ramayana, in the same human angle as Milton portrays Satan, absolutely away from the traditional approach.

The evolution of Bengali Literature started in the later half of the 19th century. The first truly romantic Bengali novel is Bankim Chandra's Durgeshnandini (1865), while the first Bengali novel of social realism is Peary Chand Mitra's Alaler Gharer Dulal (1858). The leading novelist of the age was Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, who gave the nation its national song Vandemataram from his political novel Anandamath. This century also saw the advent of the periodical press in the form of Digdarshan (a monthly magazine) and Samachardarpan (a weekly), both published by the Serampore missionaries. Drama and literary prose also saw a huge renewal in this age. The great dramatists of the 19th century were Girishchandra Ghosh (1844-1911), Amritlal Bose (1853-1929) and D L Ray (1863-1913), and the great prose writers were Debendranath Tagore and Ishvarchandra Vidyasagar.

Popularity of poetry also grew in this period. Biharilal Chakravarti’s (1834-94) Saradamangal (1879) and Sadhar Asan (1888-1889) brought in a breath of fresh air by its tender and refined lyrics. This style of writing even influenced Rabindranath Tagore who himself gave a new meaning to Bengali literature. Tagore was a poet, novelist, short-story writer, dramatist, essayist and literary critic all rolled into one. No other Bengali had written at such length and breadth of a language and age. He was the first Indian to receive a Nobel Prize, which he got for his poem Gitanjali. The post Tagore age had very few writers of his calibre, some of whom were Sarat Chandra Chatterjee (1876-1938), Prabhatkumar Mukherjee (1873-1932) and Abanindranath Tagore (1871-1951).

The modern age begins with a group of writers who wrote for Kallol, a modernist movement magazine founded in 1923. The most popular among the group were Kazi Nazrul Islam and Mohitlal Majumdar. In this age two people who had the same literary ability as Tagore were Jibananda Das (poet) and Bibhutibhushan Bandopadhyaya (novelist). Pramathanath Bisi and Rajshekhar Basu were exponents in literary criticism and humourous writings respectively. Tarashankar Bannerji is most notable for his novels while Annadashankar for his prose of ideas. The contemporary period is led undoubtedly by Sunil Gangopadhyaya (poet, novelist, children’s story writer), Buddhadev Guha (fiction writer dealing mainly with jungle stories), Mahashweta Devi, Nirendranath Chakraborty and Samaresh Majumdar.

Writing Style and Grammar
The Bengali writing system is not a purely an alphabetic script such as the Latin script rather it is a variant of the Eastern Nagari script used throughout Bangladesh and eastern India. It is said to be emerged from the modified Brahmic script around 1000 CE. It is similar to the Assamese script, the Oriya script and Mithilakshar. The Bengali Grammar is different from that of Hindi as the Bengali nouns are not assigned gender as well as the verbs does not change in accordance with the noun. There is also minimal changing of adjectives in the language.

Origin of the Bengali script

Writing systems vary widely (see the page on ancient scripts), and probably arose a number of times separately. All the modern Indian, and many of the south east asian, scripts ultimately derive from a script called brAhmI. This and kharoSThI were used in India in the earliest monumental writings during the maurya period (3rd-2nd cent BC), and may have originated as early as the 7th and 5th centuries respectively (see here for a map of their subsequent spread). The earlier, yet undeciphered, but probably syllabic, Indus valley script, a script which may have been of indigenous origin, had long gone out of use. In contrast, brAhmI and kharoSThI were syllabic alphabetic systems (otherwise called abigudas), not surprising given the detailed syllabic and phonemic analysis prevalent in Indian grammatical systems prior to this date. With the syllables analyzable into consituent consonantal ligatures and vowel modifiers, this was the most systematic syllabic consonantal system to that date. A writing system, hangul, which was more systematic (in marking the phonemic contrasts) was to arise in the world only two millenia later, probably again ideologically influenced by alphabetic descendants of brAhmI.
The idea of alphabetic writing in India, at least as far as it applied to kharoSThI, probably arose from the consonantal Aramaic script (a system suited for semitic, but not Indo-european languages where vowels formed parts of the word roots rather than merely being grammatical markers), an important trade language of the middle east in the first half of the first millenium BC. This in turn was a descendant, through Phoenician (end second millenium BC), of the primal consonantal script, Proto-Canaanite (Proto-Sinaitic; middle of the second millenium BC), which itself arose out of the highly logographic Egyptian hieroglyphics by the acrophonic principle. Though it is attested in the middle east only after 1800 BC, alphabetic writing may have developed in Egypt around 2000 BC, as exemplified by a possibly early Middle Kingdom inscription by a possibly asiatic employee at Wadi el-Hol. The Egyptian hieroglyphic system may have had an independent origin than the almost contemporary sumerian script.
Brahmi, originally written from right to left like its predecessor and like kharoSThI, later changed direction; and changed over time and space. By the third century BC, it had already developed some number symbols, and it is not clear whether these symbols were descendants of the aramaic system (an additive system with symbols for 1 and 4). The evolution seems to have been slight before the guptas, and in North India, therefore, we can say it changed through early and late maurya and shuGga periods, to give rise to the monumental gupta script (which was very close to the brAhmI script) around the 4th-6th century AD. About this time, the eastern Gupta character gave rise to the western siddhamAtRkA branch which gave rise to the nAgarI script which was close to its final form by the ninth century, by which time (594 AD legal document; later attestations from about 150 years later; first undisputed evidence from 876 AD) the place value system is attested (this development was, probably unrelated to the 1700 BC Babylonian base-60 place value system, though the rare use in greek documents may have influenced Indian development; it is certainly unrelated to the 7th century Mayan base 20 place value development; and there is some evidence that its early development dates to early centuries AD).
On the other hand from the eastern variant of this same eastern Gupta character, proto Bengali had developed by the 11th century which gave rise to the recognizably Bengali script in the medieval period. The major period of change can be traced to the 7th to the 9th centuries. The western script seems to have influenced it around the 10th century, but this influence seems to go away during the reign of mahIpAla, and at least some of the letters (a, u, k, kh, g, j, dh, n, m, l, and kS) are recognizably bengali. Many more letters (about 22 of them) became distinct by the time of vijaYasena, and the process was almost complete within the next couple of centuries. The final form used today is the result of standardization due to the first printing types in 1778, with archaisms rapidly disappearing over the next century.
Early examples of writing in Bengal include third century BC prAkRta inscription in brAhmI script at mahAsthAnagaDh.a, a second century BC example from shiluYA in noYAkhAli, and the example from shushunia. Note that the use of the nAgarI script for writing saMskRta has no early example: it is a truly modern tradition.
Up to history of Bengal


The surnames or titles have originated from clan names, village or place names, group names, occupation etc. It is from folk to modernity. The examples are following.

Original- to- Sanskritized -to-  English (anglicized)

Barujjye (original)  -- to -- Banerjee (anglicized)
Bandoghati (original)  to Bandopadhay (sanskritized) to Banerjee
Mukhoti (original) to Mukhopadhay (sanskritized) to Mukherjee (anglicized)
Gangal (original) to Gangopadhay (sanskritized)  to Ganguly (anglicized)
Chatto/ Chattoraj/ Chattokhandi (original) to Chattopadhay (sanskritized) to Chatterjee (anglicized)
Bhatto/ Bhat (original) to Bhattacharya (sanskritized) 

Explanation-1. Shandilya clan (gotra) had three varieties- Barujjye, Batabyal and Bandoghati. Banerjee (anglicized) has distinctly come from Barujjye (like Banaras came from the Baranasi). Bandoghati (original) became Bandopadhyay (sanskritized). Later they also started using Banerjee in English. However Batabyal remained and continued the same.
2. Gangal (original) became Gangopadhyay (sanskritized) then Ganguly (anglicized). Some say why Gangopadhyay is not Gangerjee like Benerjee or Mukherjee. It is because symmetry was drawn from Gangal (original).

Title/ Occupation
Goshthipoti (sanskrit) Goshthipal/ Goshthopal (apabhramsa) Ghoshal (bengali)
Goshtho (sanskrit) Ghosh (bengali). They are milkmen. The cows graze in group. Goru ra goshthi badwa bhabe ghore. Tar theke goru ke bole goshtho ba go. Ta theke goshtho ba ghosh padobir utpotti.
There are 4 kinds of Goyala or milkmen caste, as Ghosh, Gop, Sadgop and Yadav. There may be several castes in the same occupation. Example is Tili and Teli. They are different caste but in same occupation.

The surname Mondol has come from Morol or village headman. Mondal is not alawys lower caste.

2. Dom caste is not Deadbody Carrier. 
The Dom caste is wrongly identified as Deadbody Carrier in WB. Dom caste is originaly bamboo worker. They make dol/ dali/ dhama/ dhol/ etc from bamboo. The term, Dom has come from dol or dhol or dhama. But they are wrongly identified as Deadbody Carrier. It is due to ocupational mobility downwards. Still the people carrying deadbody in the Hospitals and Police Stations should not be called Dom. Let us call them Shob Bahok (in Bengali) or Deadbody Carrier and not the Dom. In the same way the word Prostitute is now substituted by Sex Worker.
3. The origin of Rarhi Brahman-
Some mistakenly think that the term Rarhi is derived from Rarh region of western Bengal. But that Rarh is derived from Ruksha (dry). It is a modern geographic term while Rarhi is a traditional term.
The term Rarhi (shreni) is derived from Gaudiya (shreni). Gaud (Malda) was a place of Sanskrit studies later shifting to Nabadwip. Hussain Shah was also a patron of Gaudiya pundits and invited Rup, Sanatan and Srijiv Goswami in his royal court.

The Gaudiya pundits established a distinct philosophy and rituals in Bengal. Many followed the path of Gaudiya pundits and came to be known as the Gaudiya shreni Brahmans and later Rarhi Brahmans (Gaudiya = Rarhi) by alternative accent.  The sect established by Sri Chaitanya Dev is called the Gaudiya Vaishnavism and he is often called the Gaud. Some denied the newly originated path of the Gaudiya pundits and claimed to be follower of original Varanasi pundits later known as Vaidik shreni. Later the term Rarhi became popular to distinguish from the Barendra Brahmans. It is to note that Barendras are homogenous but Rarhis are heterogenous. The Rarhi Brahmans (not all) are presumed to have migrated and come from north India. It is from the Ananda Bazar matrimonial advertisement that the term Rarhi became popular forgetting its origin from Gaudiya. Rarhi—Gaurhiya   Gaurh-- Rarh

4. The origin of Barendra Brahman-
 Barendras are known as the Brahmans of the Five (later Seven) ancient villages (5 Gramer Bamun) of Bengal. First they developed and spread in Five (5) ancient villages (Adi Janapad) of Bengal along lower Ganges and later on extended to 7 villages. The term Barendra has come from the king (landlord) Birendra of Pabna. Some say that Birendra was one of the 12 great landlords of Bengal (Baro Bhuniya). Birendra hailed in the Pabna district of North Bengal. He was patron of his own community and encouraged their migration from the Five ancient villages (lower Ganges) to his territory (Pabna). The migrants continued their village names to distinguish among themselves. The village names later became their surnames. The Barendras use Five (5) different surnames associated with original villages. These are.
1. Bagchi from Bagcha village presently located near Barrackpur of 24 Parganas
2. Bhaduri from Bhadur village presently located near Bangaon of 24 Parganas
3. Lahiri from Lohori village presently located near Jessore district of Bangladesh
4. Moitra from Mohit village - mohitra –then- moitra – presently unknown
5. Sanyal from Sen Lal village – senlal – then-sanyal

The 5 ancient (later 7) villages can still be traced along lower Ganges in Hoogly and 24 Parganas districts. One is Adi Saptagram on Ganga in Hoogly district. Bhadur village is presently located near Bangaon of 24 Parganas. Bagcha village is presently located near Barrackpur of 24 Parganas. Barendras are indigenous Brahmans of Bengal while the Rarhis have come from outside, north India. Both are different in physical structure.
(Senlal was a landlord. The village was named or called after him. This tradition is found in many other cases. Bogura, a district of Bangladesh is from Bogra Saheb, commander of Hussain Shah and also Mymen Singh, a commander under Ruknuddin Shah)

5. KAYASTHO COMPLEX in WB- It is viewed that caste consciousness is growing. In the Ananda Bazar Patrika, (WB) matrimonial column on Sunday many claim to be Kulin Kayasta. Even like Brahmans some claim to be Barendra Kayasta and Rarhi Kayasta besides being Kulin Kayasta. This is ridiculous. Traditionally these identities are used only by the Brahmans. The Kulin or Rarhi or Barendra classifications are only for the Brahmans. The Kayasthas cannot use these terms, since they are not part of such traditional classification. The Kayasthas are also part of Shudra category.
Earlier the surnames like Basu/ Chanda/ Deb/ Chaki were textile weavers (Tanti). Mitra were Carpenter (Chhutor). Ghosh were Milkmen (Goyala). By origin Kayasthas are heterogeneous but trying to form homogeneity.

Recently the Kayasthas have shortened the period of untouchability after death (ashuch) from 30 days to 13 days. First one or two influential families started this shortened period then followed by others. This is also a way of getting into higher caste. Example- Jyoti Basu’s shraddha was observed on 11 day like Brahmans without reasonable explanation, published in the Dainik Stastesman newspaper.
But the greatest deficiency of the Kayasthas claiming as upper caste is that they have no recognition in the Varnashrama, or the traditional caste hierarchy. They are neither Brahman, nor Kshatriya nor Vaishya and therefore to be classified as Shudra.
Following are some other related information like origin of surnames etc.

6. Jati: Bhondami- Jano kichu manush emon kotha bole ja protest na kore para jay na. Jeman Baidya ra azkaal Baidik Brahman dabi korche. Ora nije nije Brhman sejeche. mukhe mukhe prochar kore dichche. Baidya ra khub chalak. Brahman der sathe biye korar chesta kore. Ora tole tole Brahman sajar chesta korche. Asole Baidya ra semi-Dravirian group, ora 70 percent kalo. Ora Brahman dabi korte pare na. Karon brhman ra farsa ba fair complexion. Baidya ra Brahman der sathe assimilate kore jete chay. Asun amra Jat-pat vedaved vle jai… o sob ku-sanskar……………….

7. Etimology of Varnashram- The term Varnashram has come from Sanskrit (Varna+Ashram). Varna means to accept (varon kora) and Ashram means monastic home or shelter. When one accepts monastic home or shelter is Varnashram.

Saturday, 11 October 2014


often I think, and feel little bit unhappiness, regarding the present condition of our society, where we are going ? why people are so hypocrite ? for personal selfishness, why we can harm to somebody in any level? Particularly the condition of woman in Indian society raises lot of question, though present government lead by Mr Modi keeps a little bit ointment on the wounds, but in my view the government, alone couldn't do any thing, the society has to change their putrid mentality against the woman. The literacy rate of India is increased a lot, but still many villages are lacking in primary amenities as proper schools for girls in rural area, domestic violence is another parasite in Indian society. Actually some of the masculine power want to get the money without hard work and that's reason still sting of dowry is existed in all the religious Indian society. The 80% population is belong to Hindus, though Hindus are in general more developed in compare of other religious community, higher literacy rate and economical more better, but again the traditional fetters do not let them to survive with unleashing manner. Sometime, I find nothing big difference between my mothers' era and my daughters'. Same hurdles they have to face in the society for self existence. The Hinduism, in itself is very progressive religion, respects woman as the mother goddess but still exists the perversity against the woman. Indeed, since independence there is nothing changed in the law for woman interest, even so many women do not know about the existing law for their protection. There should be a comprehensive changes / amendment in the existing law particularly in field of education, rape cases, share in property, dowry system, share in politics as a long pending reservation bill, domestic violence, safety in work place. There should be more woman police recruitment and more women police station. Indian women always proved their supremacy in every field since Vedic era to present modern India. Truly they are the real creator of present and coming generation.

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Sunday, 17 November 2013

Indian society and woman’s identification

The status of women, particularly literate women in Indian society still facing the crisis of identification, required complete changing of outlook. The government claiming that they are too much aware of women’s development and security but in the ground, that is the only pseudo shadow of false propaganda.  Indeed some amendments in present law have taken place but again the real problem starts when question arise for implementation. Required fifty percent participation of women from village level to the cabinet, which is their birthright as a citizen of the democratic country.  The outlook of society should also be changed particularly in women too, observed that woman is the main enemy against the development of women, personally, I have experienced, and some women never accept their daughter-in-law as a daughter, though they are literate, the century’s old decomposed tradition still flows in their blood.  Whenever a question arises between the choosing daughter-in-law and daughter, they protect their daughter even if she is doing mistakes, and that is the reason the divorce numbers are increasing in the society.  Actually, some women have a mentality that the son is her property, she always jealous if someone will share with him. In this subject, other western countries are more liberal and progressive.  After a certain age they don’t interfere in children’s lives, even in Saudi Arabia I've observed they want children should learn themselves, but Indian society still following the age-old tradition, that son should ask every day about his decision, particularly in case of love marriages situation becomes more worst, the culture crisis and parents interference makes couples life miserable.  However, those stupid boys never ask their mothers before falling in love.  I wondered and experienced that a matured man is looking to her mother before answering in a serious matter.  What type’s culture exists in our society, ridiculous, a matured man is saying that my parents do not like you because you have protested against them.  If a literate girl will protest against the domestic violence, very soon all in-law and relatives will unite and blame to that particular woman.  Moreover, no doubt they will say she is bad character woman, that scenario of so-called civilized Indian society.  There should be strict law in this filed too, still, our society is infancy level though literacy rate increased.  However, the outlook of society not reached to maturity. And this is the condition of so-called aristocratic families, I’m afraid after prolong independence period of the country still women are facing identification crisis.
artist Pavel Guzenko 1